Chinese-Canadian Workers in Toronto

More than 4,000 Chinese workers died building the country’s first transcontinental railroad, yet most of the Chinese community faced discrimination and outright racism. Laws were specially created to oppress and exclude them. Yet they persevered.

Our panelists will take us through more than a century of the experiences of Chinese-Canadians: fighting back, organising and leading the way for many others.

Join the Toronto Workers’ History Project in this special livestreamed presentation.


Winnie Ng
Activist, scholar, Chair Emeritus, Ryerson-Unifor National Chair in Social Justice and Democracy.
Jennifer Huang
Chinese Workers’ Network, Toronto and York Regional Labour Council
Justin Kong
Executive Director, Chinese Canadian National Council, Toronto

Wednesday, 14 October, 2020
7:00 pm – 9:00 pm
or, join us on through our livestream on Facebook

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Chilean-Canadian Memoria in Toronto

Click for the video on Facebook

On September 11, 1973 the Chilean military under General Pinochet brutally attacked the democratically elected Popular Unity Government, killing President Salvador Allende and established a military junta that suspended civilian rule and killed, imprisoned and tortured thousands of Chileans. It was from this baptism of fire that the Chilean Canadian community built and re-built itself.

On September 11, 2020 the TWHP will be holding a webinar about the churches and unions that campaigned to have Chilean refugees accepted into Canada and the history of the Chilean Canadian community in Toronto.

Friday September 11, 2020 7:00 pm
If you are interested in attending – please send an email to:

Toronto Workers History project

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Social History for Social Distancing

Nursing graduates of the Women’s College Hospital School of Nursing, including Agnes Clinton, the first Black graduate, proceed to Convocation Hall at the University of Toronto, 1951. Women’s College Hospital Archive / Toronto Star.

Like so much else, the Toronto Workers’ History Project is on hiatus as the world confronts the COVID-19 crisis.

As promoters of workers’ history and participants in workers’ movements, we are thinking a lot these days about the front-line workers tasked with fighting the pandemic head-on: nurses (like those pictured above), doctors, and other medical staff. We are also in solidarity with those essential workers whose jobs require them to continue being out in the world, at heightened risk of infection: workers at grocery stores, pharmacies, take-out restaurants and other still-open businesses, delivery persons and mail carriers, cleaners, farm workers, transit operators, drivers, airport workers, and others. It is does not escape notice that many of these essential workers are among the lowest paid and most marginalized in our society. Our thoughts and support also go out, of course, to the sick and their loved ones, in Toronto and around the world.

Those of us not in any of the above groups have likely been spending a lot more time at home recently, practicing “social distancing” to protect ourselves and our neighbours alike. 

Though the TWHP will not be meeting in person in the near future, we wanted to share with you some videos from past meetings — our modest contribution to helping people find enjoyable and enriching ways to pass the time during these unusual and trying days.

We call it, “Social History for Social Distancing.”


A special thank-you to Glen Richards who filmed and edited all the below videos and who curates our YouTube channel.

Japanese Canadians: Internment and Disperal
with Joy Kogawa, Susan Aihoshi, Kim Koyama, and David Kidd
3 March 2020
Emma’s Last Visit
A production of the Toronto Workers’ Theatre Group
Written by Craig Heron, Directed by Aido Jordao
12 November 2019
Gabriel Allahdua on Migrant Farm Labour in Canada
10 October 2017
Craig Heron, “Labour on the March: 150 Years of Labour Day in Toronto”
12 September 2017

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Japanese Canadians: Internment and Dispersal | March 3, 7pm

Tuesday, March 3, 7:00 p.m.
Steelworkers Hall, 25 Cecil St.

During World War II, over 20,000 Japanese Canadians were interned by the Canadian state and displaced from their homes and communities in British Columbia. Their businesses and homes, including a fleet of fishing boats, were seized and never returned or properly compensated for. A traumatic and damaging experience for those affected, this forced relocation was also the genesis of the Japanese Canadian community in Toronto, as many internees eventually settled in the city, where they rebuilt their lives and communities.

Join us for a discussion of this important history, featuring some of the country’s top writers and thinkers and members of Japanese Canadians for Social Justice:

  • Joy Kogawa
  • Susan Aihoshi
  • Kim Koyama


Steelworkers Hall is a wheelchair accessible space. Parking is available in the lot behind the hall on a first-come first-serve basis (enter through laneway east of hall). There is also paid parking available on the street. The closest transit stops are Spadina and Nassau (510 Spadina Streetcar) and College and Beverley/St. George (506 Carlton Streetcar).

For any other accessibility questions or concerns, please contact Ed Dunsworth at

Facebook event page here.

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Writing Sex Work History | Feb. 4, 7 p.m., 120 Diner

 “Sex worker in altercation with moral reformer,” ca. 1909. As reproduced in Canada’s Oldest Profession: Sex Work and Bawdy House LegislationU of T Libraries.

Tuesday, February 4, 7:00 p.m.
120 Diner, 120 Church St., Toronto

** Note change from our usual location **

Though criminalized and pushed to the margins, sex workers have played critical roles in Toronto’s history, contributing to its economic development and fighting for the rights of queer folk and other marginalized communities. While attitudes toward sex and sex work have changed dramatically in recent decades, prostitution laws continue to marginalize and punish sex workers, and put them at high risk of violence. Generations of sex work activists have pushed back against this state of affairs, organizing for recognition of sex work as a legitimate occupation and for safe working conditions within it.

Join us for a conversation about the past and present of sex work in Toronto, featuring Laurie Bertram, historian studying sex work in the 1800s at the University of Toronto, and Mandy Goodhandy, singer, comedian, sex work advocate and author of the recently released memoir, Just Call Me Lady.

The bar will be open (cash and cards accepted).

[Please note that the venue, 120 Diner, is wheelchair accessible, but does not have a wheelchair accessible bathroom. The closest accessible bathroom is located one block south at Versus Coffee.]

Facebook event page.

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Emma Goldman in Toronto

Tuesday, November 12, 7:00 p.m.
Steelworkers’ Hall, 25 Cecil St.

The year 2020 will mark the 80th anniversary of the death of anarchist and feminist Emma Goldman in Toronto in May 1940. Deported from the United States in 1919, Goldman spent part of her exile in Toronto during the 1920s and 1930s.

Join us for an evening of remembering and learning about Emma Goldman’s life and death in Toronto. 


Emma’s Last Visit 

A production of the Toronto Workers’ Theatre Group

Written by Craig Heron. Directed by Aida Jordao.


“80 Years Later… Emma Goldman Is Alive and Well and Working on Spadina Avenue”

A presentation by Franca Iacovetta (University of Toronto)
and Cynthia Wright (York University)

This talk is based on a book project that revisits Goldman’s exile and explores still understudied themes, such as how her experience as a political deportee, exile, and self-described “woman without a country” shaped her understanding of race, nation, internationalism, and exile politics. The talk will focus in particular on how Goldman was remembered, inter-generationally, and by whom in the city’s official, political, and popular memory.

Facebook event page here.


Steelworkers Hall is a wheelchair accessible space. Parking is available in the lot behind the hall on a first-come first-serve basis (enter through laneway east of hall). There is also paid parking available on the street. The closest transit stops are Spadina and Nassau (510 Spadina Streetcar) and College and Beverley/St. George (506 Carlton Streetcar).

For any other accessibility questions or concerns, please contact Ed Dunsworth at

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Workers on Film: An Evening with CLiFF

Tuesday, October 8, 7:00 p.m.
Steelworkers’ Hall, 25 Cecil St.

Imagine a world where thousands of films are made about workers and the conditions under which they live, work, fight, and succeed in their daily lives! Instead, the world of labour has found it increasingly difficult to communicate its message as fewer and fewer people have greater control over the means of communication – the media.

It is more important than ever that working people be able to tell their own stories in their own words and in their own images.

With the wide availability of digital still and video cameras, camera-phones, and other tools, activists can now make their stories – but still find it difficult to exhibit their narratives. The Canadian Labour International Film Festival (CLiFF) is that venue.

Hear from three CLiFF Board members, watch some short films, and discuss how you can play a role in sharing our collective messages!


Steelworkers Hall is a wheelchair accessible space. Parking is available in the lot behind the hall on a first-come first-serve basis (enter through laneway east of hall). There is also paid parking available on the street. The closest transit stops are Spadina and Nassau (510 Spadina Streetcar) and College and Beverley/St. George (506 Carlton Streetcar).

For any other accessibility questions or concerns, please contact Ed Dunsworth at

Facebook event page:

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Toronto Workers and World War II + Annual General Meeting

Tuesday, September 17, 7:00 p.m.
Steelworkers’ Hall, 25 Cecil St.

September 20 is the 80th anniversary Canada declaring war on Germany in 1939. The next six years of World War II shook up the lives of workers in Canada and around the world. Mikhail Bjorge, author of the forthcoming book The Workers’ War, will talk to us about how workers in Toronto waged their own war on the home front.

The meeting will begin with the TWHP Annual General Meeting.


Steelworkers Hall is a wheelchair accessible space. Parking is available in the lot behind the hall on a first-come first-serve basis (enter through laneway east of hall). There is also paid parking available on the street. The closest transit stops are Spadina and Nassau (510 Spadina Streetcar) and College and Beverley/St. George (506 Carlton Streetcar).

For any other accessibility questions or concerns, please contact Ed Dunsworth at

Facebook event page here:

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Video: Gabriel Allahdua on Migrant Farm Workers in Canada

From our Oct. 10, 2017 meeting on migrant workers in Toronto and Canada. Video of other presentations to follow soon.

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Predicting the Future of Temporary Foreign Worker Programs… In the 1960s and 70s

Originally published on Active History on 4 October 2017. Republished here with permission.

Edward Dunsworth

The Thanksgiving season is often seized upon by farmworkers and activists to highlight agricultural workers’ contributions to society and the precarious conditions that so often characterize their work and life. In both Canada and the United States, farm labour activists have riffed on a popular motif which recognizes farmers, modifying it to some variation of: “Got Food? Thank a Farmworker.”

In Canada, these messages have drawn attention in particular to migrant farmworkers, who in various Temporary Foreign Worker Programs (TFWPs), represent a crucial component of the country’s agricultural labour force. In the spirit of joining the Thanksgiving shout-out to farmworkers, in this post I share two finds from the archives, uncovered in the course of my research on the history of tobacco farm labour in Ontario, in which senior federal bureaucrats in the 1960s and 1970s issue some eerily prescient warnings about what TFWPs might become in the future.

First, a bit of context. While the history of migrant labour can be traced back centuries in Canada, state-managed guestworker programs have been a permanent fixture since the mid-20thcentury. In agriculture, the most important program has been the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP), founded in 1966, which brings workers from Mexico, Jamaica, and other Caribbean countries to work on Canadian farms. TFWPs – which comprise a large number of employment visa regulations and foreign labour schemes, including the SAWP – have come under fire in recent years by activists, academics, and politicians.

Migrant justice advocates have criticized the structure of programs, under which migrants in practice have far fewer rights than Canadian workers. Migrant labour scholar Adriana Paz has referred to this as a system of “labour apartheid.” In the SAWP specifically, migrant workers are barred from unionizing in Ontario (by far the biggest receiving province), have almost zero access to permanent residency, often face dangerous work conditions and subpar living arrangements, and find that their employers have almost unchecked control over their immigration status. Complaining about conditions on the job or in the bunkhouse can often result in summary deportation and exclusion from future participation in the program.

The number of migrants arriving in Canada in TFWPs grew rapidly under Stephen Harper’s Conservative government, though much of the groundwork for these programs was laid during Liberal administrations. In recent years, Liberals have criticized Conservatives’ running of the programs, arguing that what started out as a small, tightly-managed mechanism for alleviating temporary labour shortages had ballooned into an uncontrollable behemoth, easily abused by employers seeking cheap labour. This was never how this was supposed to work, the Liberals and Justin Trudeau have essentially said. Any problems that have arisen are simply the result of Conservative mismanagement.

Two letters at Library and Archives Canada complicate the Liberal portrayal of TFWPs. Written respectively in 1962 and 1974, they foreshadow some of the problems that would emerge in TFWPs in later years, suggesting that these issues are not simply managerial or administrative. Rather, they are structural, something that has been apparent to observers – including those within government – since before the programs even began.

The first letter was sent in 1962 from the Deputy Minister of Citizenship and Immigration George F. Davidson to Charles E. Hendry, the director of the School of Social Work at the University of Toronto. In it, Davidson responds to a number of issues concerning Jamaican immigration to Canada that had been brought to Hendry’s attention by a Jamaican friend of his, Eddie Burke. Of particular interest here, Burke (via Hendry) had raised the prospect of implementing an agricultural guestworker program between Canada and Jamaica, similar to the one already in existence in the U.S. (Canada’s SAWP would not begin until four years later). While sympathetic to Burke’s other concerns, on the subject of a farmworker program, Deputy Minister Davidson was categorically opposed:

“I am frank to say that I would not touch that one with a ten-foot pole. This is not immigration, but rather the importation of contract labour-gangs on a sort of indenture basis. These gangs of men are brought in to the U.S. under bond to ensure their eventual departure; they are shipped from one farm area to another like the old harvester gangs, fed and bedded in makeshift accommodation; and when they are paid they do not receive their wages in person, but have to agree to most of it being sent back to their families in Jamaica. I looked at the proposition in 1960, when I was still new on the job, and was at first attracted to the idea: but, when I found out more of the details, I quickly saw that it was not the sort of manpower operation I could recommend as a proper part of any immigration programme.[1][Emphasis added].

Davidson’s fears about what a Canadian farmworker program might look like were justified: many of his horrified comments about the U.S.-Jamaica guestworker program in 1962 could easily be applied to the 21st-century Canadian SAWP. Workers are required to leave the country immediately upon termination of their contracts; accommodation is often poor (see image below); and a “mandatory savings” program in which the Jamaican government withheld 25% of wages until workers returned home was only eliminated in 2015.

Photo of bunkhouse accomodations for temporary workers for a canning plant near Chatham, Ontario. Shows overcrowding and dim space.

In case you needed convincing of substandard accommodations, this is the bunkhouse where a Jamaican friend of the author’s lives for 6-8 weeks per year while working at a canning plant near Chatham. Bathrooms and a dining hall are in separate buildings. Photo taken on 26 August 2017 and is courtesy of Edward Dunsworth.

The second letter, written in 1974, is an internal memo within the Department of Manpower and Immigration, sent from Jean W. Edmonds, Assistant Deputy Minister for Immigration, to her boss A.E. Gotlieb, the Deputy Minister. In the memo, Edmonds expressed a number of concerns about the development of agricultural guestworker programs in Canada. She made it clear that her worries were not about the operation of the SAWP up to that point: “It is not the past but the future that concerns me.” Edmonds had two major preoccupations: first, she argued that it would be difficult to maintain separate streams of immigration – permanent and temporary. Second, she worried about how TFWPs might harm the government’s reputation, both at home and on the world stage.

On the first point, Edmonds’ concern partly emerged from an organizational conundrum in which the “Manpower” and “Immigration” functions of the Department were split into two separate divisions. Edmonds argued that this was problematic; matters such as guestworkers, which were usually handled by the Manpower wing, could not be so easily separated from Immigration. She wrote: “I do not believe we can divorce ‘offshore workers’ and ‘employment visas’ from Immigration policy simply because they are matters of temporary rather than permanent entry. As all countries discover, temporary sometimes tends to become permanent unless there is a method of ensuring that this does not happen.” While temporary labour programs have become strikingly permanent in Canada, Edmonds’ worry about temporary people becoming permanent has not come to fruition.

In fact, the last part of the quotation, “unless there is a method of ensuring that this does not happen,” is rather chilling to read, given the Canadian state’s remarkable effectiveness in ensuring that permanent residency has not happened for many guestworkers, and has been especially unattainable for farmworkers. Workers in the SAWP can toil in Canada for 10, 20, 30 or more years, and never receive any easier access to permanent residency. They are of course free to apply through the same channels as other prospective immigrants, but the low levels of education for most farmworkers and lack of English or French fluency among Mexicans typically make obtaining sufficient points an unrealizable dream. Other barriers have been erected to make access to permanent residency difficult for non-SAWP workers too.

The issue of temporary migrants becoming permanent residents connected to Edmonds’ second concern. She explained: “Attempts to ensure the return of temporary workers when their work permits have expired can, unless carefully thought through, attract the unfavourable attention of the Civil Liberties Association and similar groups, and be a matter of strain between Canada and the country of permanent residence.” Here, Edmonds was spot-on in her vision of a possible future. The more draconian aspects of TFWPs – including the four-in, four-out rule – have indeed been an impetus for widespread criticism and resistance – not just from civil society groups, but from workers themselves.

In addition to negative attention from the Canadian public, Edmonds thought TFWPs might cast an unfavourable light on Canada on the world stage. Here, she demonstrated some of the cool calculations that have gone into Canada’s cultivation of a progressive image. Having recently attended a United Nations Forum on World Population, Edmonds reported that “The social consequences of the practice of temporary migration for purposes of employment are becoming a matter of world wide concern.” In particular, “Third World Countries” were apprehensive about brain drain and the effect of temporary migration on families. Edmonds concluded that: “These considerations need to be taken into account in the light of Canada’s ‘humanitarian’ concerns about immigration.”[2] Again, Edmonds’ fears were well-founded: Canada’s immigration policies, including on migrant labour, have repeatedly come under fire from various UN bodies, including the ILO, in recent years.

While Trudeau and the Liberals continue to issue platitudes around improving TFWPs and providing pathways to permanent residency, very little has actually changed for the migrant men and women who harvest our food, clean our hotel rooms, and make our double-doubles. Documents like these tell us that problems in TFWPs did not spontaneously emerge during the Harper years, but instead are built into their very structures.

Edmonds’ invocation of “humanitarian” concerns – in quotation marks – compels us to take the “sunny ways” language on TFWPs with a grain of salt (or perhaps some sunglasses) and remember that immigration policy – even of the “humanitarian” variety – usually emerges not from a place of genuine human concern but from a political calculus weighing both domestic and international factors. This Thanksgiving weekend, we do well to remember who produced the food on our tables and to “thank a farmworker” by doing something to ensure a better future for migrant workers than the ones predicted by Davidson and Edmonds – futures which have largely come to pass.[3]

Edward Dunsworth is a PhD candidate in the Department of History at the University of Toronto and a member of the Toronto Workers’ History Project (TWHP). He invites anyone in the Toronto area to attend the upcoming TWHP event, Good Enough to Work, Good Enough to Stay: Migrant Workers in Toronto and Canada, on Tuesday, October 10th at 7pm at Steelworkers’ Hall.

[1] George F. Davidson to Charles E. Hendry, 30 July 1962, Department of Citizenship and Immigration, RG26, vol. 124, file 3-33-6, part 3, Library and Archives Canada.

[2] Jean W. Edmonds to A.E. Gotlieb, 9 April 1974, Department of Manpower and Immigration, RG118, acc. 1986-86/071, vol. 73, file 3300-1, “Farm Labour – General Series,” pt. 3, Library and Archives Canada.

[3] For ways to support migrant workers, check out some of the following organizations and get on their mailing lists: Justicia for Migrant WorkersCaregivers’ Action CentreUFCW’s Agricultural Workers Alliance. There are of course many more organizations doing fantastic work – many are part of the Migrant Workers Alliance for Change and are listed on their website.

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